References

References3b : The World Health Organization definition of Natural Family Planning

1 Klaus, H ; Natural Family Planning : A Review 2nd Edition. July 1995, page 13; NFP Center of Washington, D.C. Inc. , 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810

3c: How long does it take to learn NFP and to achieve automony?

1 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 15; Newman Lecture Series 1; May 21, 2000. ( on the internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Klaus, H ; Natural Family Planning : A Review 2nd Edition. July 1995, page 12,13; NFP Center of Washington, D.C. Inc., 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810

3 World Health Organization; ‘A prospective multi-centre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning 1; The Teaching Phase'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol. 36, no 2, Aug 1981; p152-158.

4 Kambic RT, Martin MC; ‘Evaluating client autonomy in natural family planning” Adv. Contracept. 4 (1988) 221-231

4a How is effectiveness measured?

1 Freundl G, ‘Prospective European multi-center study of natural family planning (1989-1992): interim results’ p277; Advances in contraception; 1993; 9;269-283.

2 Frank-Hermann, Petra, Gnoth, C, Baur S et al ‘Determination of the fertile window: Reproductive competence of women- European cycle databases'; Gynecological Endocrinology, p307,308; June 2005, Vol 20, issue 6, p305-312.

4b : How effective is NFP

1 Freundl G.; Prospective European multi-center study of natural family planning (1989-1992): interim results; Adv. in contraception; 1993, 9; 269-283.

2 P.Frank-Hermann et al; ‘The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study; Human Reproduction, pages 5,7; Feb 2007; p1-10. (on internet)

3 Freundl G; ‘European multicenter study of natural family planning (1989-1995): efficacy and drop-out'; Advances in contraception; 1999;15; 69-83. This article gives a review of other studies on pages 79,80.

4c : Effectiveness : Comparison of NFP with other family planning methods.

1 Frank-Hermann P.et al; The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study; Human Reproduction; Feb 2007; p1-10.

2 Frank-Herrmann et al; ‘Effectiveness and acceptability of the symptothermal method of natural family planning in Germany; Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165; 2052-4

3 Freundl G.; Prospective European multi-center study of natural family planning (1989-1992): interim results; Advances in contraception; 1993, 9; 269-283.

4 Aldred, David; http://nfpsite.aldred.org/effect.html

4d : What factors influence effectiveness?

1 Frank-Herrmann et al; ‘Effectiveness and acceptability of the symptothermal method of natural family planning in Germany; Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165; 2052-4

5 : Basic facts about Fertility

1 Odeblad Erik; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method'; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. (on the internet if you google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’)

2 Flynn, Anna & Brooks Melissa; ‘The Manual of Natural Family Planning’ p32; 1996; ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

3 Lamb JF, Ingram CG, Johnson IA, Pitman RM; ‘Essentials of Physiology’ 3rd Edition, page 252; Blackwell Scientific Publications 1991, ISBN- 632-03135-2

4 Griffin JE, Ojeda SR; ‘Textbook of Endocrine Physiology 3rd Edition,1996, page 226; Oxford University Press,ISBN 0-19-510755-1 (pbk)

5 Manassiev Nikolai, Whitehead, Malcolm; ‘Female Reproductive Health'; p7; 2004; ISBN 1-85070-491-0

6c: The Uterus and ovary during the cycle

1 Griffin JE, Ojeda SR;’Textbook of Endocrine Physiology 3rd Edition, 1996, pgs 171,172; Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510755-1( pbk)

2 Mansfield MJ, Emans SJ; ‘Anorexia nervosa, athletics,and amenorrhea'; Ped. Clinics of North America; Vol 36,No 3, June 1989, 533-549

3 Brown JB; ‘Types of ovarian activity in women and their significance: the continuum (a reinterpretation of early findings)’; Human Reproduction Update; 2011;  Vol 17; No 2; p141-158. (this is a classic article which gives a greater understanding of the menstrual cycle throughout the reproductive life of the woman).  

 

 

6d : The Fertility Cycle

1 Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Baird DD; ‘Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation – effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby'; N Engl J Med 1995; 333;1517-21

2 World Health Organization; Temporal relationship between indices of the fertile period’,1983 page 1; Fertil & Steril; 39; 647-655. (Dr Anna Flynn was one of the WHO task force investigators for this study).

3 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ page 1; Newman Lecture Series 1; May 21, 2000. (on the internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’.

4 Freundl G et al; “Estimated maximum failure rates of cycle monitors using conception probabilities in the menstrual cycle”; Human Reproduction, (2003), vol 18, no12, p 2628-2633.

6e : Factors necessary to achieve pregnancy

1 Erik Odeblad; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. (on the internet if you google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’)

2 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see pages 13,14; Newman Lecture Series 1 -May 21, 2000. ( this is available on the internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

3 Manassiev Nikolai, Whitehead, Malcolm; ‘Female Reproductive Health'; 2004, ISBN 1-85070-491-0

4 Griffin James E, Ojeda, Sergio R; ‘Textbook of Endocrine Physiology';1996, p226-228; ISBN 0-19-510755-1(pbk)

7 : What is Fertility Awareness ?

1 Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Baird DD; ‘Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation – effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby'; N Engl J Med 1995; 333;1517-21

2 Simpson JL; Editorial, Pregnancy and the timing of Intercourse; N Engl J Med 1995; 333;1563-64

3 Marshall, J; A field trial of the basal body temperature method of regulating births; Lancet,1968,July, 8-10;

4 Billings, E & J; Symptoms & Hormonal Changes accompanying ovulation; Lancet; Feb 5; 1972; 282-284

5 Keefe, E.; ‘Self-observation of the cervix to distinguish days of possible fertility'; Bull of the Sloane Hosp for Women; 1962; 129-136

6 Moghissi KS, Syner FN, Evans TN: ‘A composite picture of the menstrual cycle'; Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1972; 114:405- 418.

7 Freundl G, Godehardt E, Kern PA, et al; “Estimated maximum failure rates of cycle monitors using daily conception probabilities in the menstrual cycle”; Human Reproduction, (2003), vol 18, no. 12, p2628-2633.

8 : History of the Development of Natural Family Planning

1. Marshall, J; A field trial of the basal body temperature method of regulating births; Lancet,1968, July, 8-10;

2. Billings, JJ; “The ovulation Method”; (1964) ; Advocate Press, Melbourne, Australia;

3. Billings,E,&J; Symptoms &Hormonal Changes accompanying ovulation; Lancet; Feb 5; 1972; 282-284.

4 Marshall, J; ‘Cervical mucus and Basal Body Temperature method of Regulating births'; Lancet; Aug 1976; 282-283

5 Thyma, P; Fertile and Infertile days in married life; authors edition, Fall River, Massachusetts: Raritan Printing Company; 1973

6 Thyma, P;’The Double-Check Method of Natural Family Planning';Married Life Information,Fall River,Massachusetts; 1976.

7 Keefe, E; ‘Self-observation of the cervix to distinguish days of possible fertility'; Bull of the Sloane Hosp for Women;1962; 129-136

8 Flynn, Anna & Brooks Melissa; ‘The Manual of Natural Family Planning’ p32; 1996; ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

9 Roetzer, Josef; ‘The sympto-thermal Method': Ten years of change; Linacre Quarterly, Nov 1978; 358-374

10 Kippley; ‘The Art of Natural Family Planning; 4th ed 1996; ISBN 0-926412-13-2

11 Hilgers TW; ‘The medical and surgical practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY; 2004; ISBN 0-9744147-0-0

12 World Health Organization; ‘Temporal relationships between ovulation and defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17N2, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone'; 1. Probit analysis; Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:383-390, 1980.

13 World Health Organization; ‘Temporal relationships between ovulation and defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17N2, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone'; 11. Histologic dating; Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139:886-895, 1981.

14 World Health Organization; ‘Temporal relationships between indices of the fertile period'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol 39, May 1983; p647-655. (Dr Anna Flynn MRCOG, Birningham was one of the task force investigators).

15 World Health Organization; ‘A prospective multicentre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning 1; The Teaching Phase'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol 36, no 2, Aug 1981; p152-158.

16 World Health Organization; ‘A prospective multicentre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning 11;The Effectiveness Phase'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol 36, no 5, Nov 1981; p591-598.

17 World Health Organization; ‘A prospective multicentre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning 111; Characteristics of the menstrual cycle and of the fertile phase'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol 40, No 6, Dec 1983; p773-778.

18 World Health Organization; ‘A prospective multicentre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning 1V; The Outcome of Pregnancy'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol 41, no 4, April 1984; p593-598.

19 World Health Organization; ‘A prospective multicentre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning V; Psycosexual aspects'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol 47, no 5, May 1987; p765-772.

9 : NFP Methods

1 Perez, A. Labbok, MH. Queenan JT. ‘Clinical study of the Lactational Amenorrhoea Method for family planning'; Lancet 1992; 339; 968-70

2 Kennedy KI, Rivewra, R. McNeilly AS.; ‘Consensus Statement on the use of breastfeeding as a family planning method'; Contraception, 1989; 39 (5): 477-496

10 : Indicators of Fertility

1 Moghissi KS, Syner FN, Evans TN: ‘A composite picture of the menstrual cycle'; Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1972; 114:405- 418. Commenting on this study by Moghissi, Dr M.L. Taymor, Boston, Massachusetts states on page 416, “The special contribution of this paper is the correlation of the changes in the end-organ responses, i.e. BBT, and changes in cervical mucus, with the hormonal changes. As a result, these changes which are naturally of more interest to the clinician, are placed on a firmer physiologic basis.”

2 Flynn A, Brooks M; ‘The Manual of Natural Family Planning'; 1996; ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

11b : The Cervical Mucus Indicator applied to the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle.

1 Klaus H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ pages 12, 4,10; Newman Lecture Series 1-May 21, 2000. (on the internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Flynn AM, Lynch SS; ‘Cervical mucus and identification of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle'; Br J of Obstet &Gynec; August 1976; vol 83; 656-659

3 Freundl G et al; “Estimated maximum failure rates of cycle monitors using conception probabilities in the menstrual cycle”; Human Reproduction, (2003), vol 18, no12, p 2628-2633.

11c : How mucus tells your fertile days

1 Odeblad Erik; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ page 30; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. (internet if you google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’).

2 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ for bpeak day’ see pages 6, 5, 4, 10; Newman Lecture Series 1;May 21, 2000. ( internet, google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

3 Cohen M, Stein I, Kaye B; ‘Spinnbarkeit: ‘A characteristic of cervical mucus; significance at ovulation time'; Fertil & Steril; Vol 3, no 3, 1952.

4 Flynn AM, Lynch SS; ‘Cervical mucus and identification of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle'; Br J of Obstet &Gynec; August 1976; vol 83; 656-659

5 Flynn AM, Brooks M; ‘The Manual of Natural Family Planning’, 1996, ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

6 Klaus, H ; Natural Family Planning : A Review 2nd Edition. July 1995, page 11; NFP Center of Washington, D.C. Inc. , 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810

11d : Parameters used to assess the mucus symptom:

1 Odeblad E, ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method, www.woomb.org)

2 Hilgers TW, Prebil AM; ‘The ovulation Method-Vulvar observations, an index of fertility/infertility’ page 21; Obstetrics & gynaecology, vol 53, no 1, Jan 1979.

3 Cohen M, Stein I, Kaye B; ‘Spinnbarkeit: ‘A characteristic of cervical mucus; significance at ovulation time'; Fertil & Steril; Vol 3, no 3, 1952.

11e : How is the mucus symptom recorded:

1 Brown, JB; ‘Ovarian activity and fertility and the Billings Method’ (from the interenet; Billings Life; 2005)

2 Odeblad E, ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness’ page 7; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method, www.woomb.org)

3 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 9,8,12; Newman Lecture Series 1-May 21, 2000. (on the internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

4 World Health Organization;’A prospective multi-centre trial of the Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning 1; The Teaching Phase'; Fertility & Sterility; Vol. 36, no 2, Aug 1981; pages 152-158.

11f : What is Cervical Mucus ?

1 Morales P, Roco M, Vigil P; ‘Human cervical mucus: relationship between biochemical characteristics and ability to allow migration of spermatozoa; Human Reproduction; vol 8 No 1 pp78-83, 1993.

2 Moghissi KS,: ‘Prediction and detection of ovulation'; Fertility & Sterility, August 1980; 34, No.2; 89- 98.

3 Odeblad Erik; ‘Cervical mucus and their functions; Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, Vol 26, No 1, Jan 1997.

4 Menarguez M, Pastor LM; Odeblad, E. 2003; ‘Morphological characterization of different human cervical mucus types using light and scanning electron microscopy; Human Reproduction; Vol. 18 No 9, 1782-1789, Sept 2003; ( internet if you google Erik Odeblad).

5 Vigil P, Ceric F, Cortes M, Klaus H; ‘Usefulness of monitoring fertility from menarche; J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol (2006), 19: 173-179

11g : The types of cervical mucus and their function

1 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?'; Newman Lecture Series 1 -May 21, 2000. ( internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Odeblad Erik;’Cervical mucus and their functions; Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians & Surgeons, Jan 1997, Vol 26, No1.;pgs 28,29, 30

3 Odeblad Erik; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ page 10, 11, 14, 15, 18 ; Bull.of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. (google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’.)

4 Klaus, H ; Natural Family Planning : A Review 2nd Edition. July 1995, page 13; NFP Center of Washington, D.C. Inc. , 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810.

5 Vigil P, Ceric F, Cortes M, Klaus H; ‘Usefulness of monitoring fertility from menarche; J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol (2006), 19: 173-179

6 Hanson FW, Overstreet JW; ‘The interaction of human spermatozoa with cervical mucus in vivo'; Am J Obstet Gynecol 140;173;1981

11h (i) : A note about G Mucus

1 Odeblad Erik; ‘Cervical mucus and their functions; Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, Jan 1997, Vol 26, No1;p 28-30

2 Odeblad, E; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ page 10, 11, 14, 15, 18 ; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. ( google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’.)

3 Odeblad E, ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method. www.woomb.org

11h (ii) : A note about L Mucus

1 Klaus, H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 4, 9, 10; Newman Lecture Series 1 -May 21, 2000. (on the internet; google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Odeblad Erik; Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method, www.woomb.org)

3 Odeblad, E; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ page 10, 11,14, 15, 18 ; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. (google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’.)

4 Menarguez M,B Pastor LM, Odeblad, E. 2003; ‘Morphological characterization of different human cervical mucus types using light and scanning electron microscopy; Human Reproduction; Vol. 18 No 9, 1782-1789, Sept 2003; ( google Erik Odeblad).

11h (iii) : A note about S Mucus :

1 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 4, 13; Newman Lecture Series 1;May 21, 2000. ( on the internet; google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Odeblad Erik; ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method, www.woomb.org)

3 Odeblad, E; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ page 10, 11, 14, 15, 18 ; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. ( google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’.)

4 Odeblad E; Some notes on the biology of the cervix’ 2007 (internet, google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’)

5 Odeblad E; “Some notes on the cervical crypts”; Bulletin of the ovulation method Research and reference centre of Australia, vol 24 no 2 June 1997, p31.

6 Klaus, H ; Natural Family Planning : A Review 2nd Edition. July 1995, page 6; NFP Center of Washington, D.C. Inc. , 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810

7 Settlage, Diane S, Fordney et al; ‘Sperm transport from the external cervical os to the fallopian tubes in women : A time and quantitation study’ Fertil and Steril; Vol 24, No 9, Sept 1973

11h ( iv ) : A note about P Mucus

1 Klaus, Hanna; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 4; Newman Lecture Series 1 -May 21, 2000. ( on the internet ; google natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Odeblad Erik; ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method, www.woomb.org)

3 Menarguez M, Pastor LM, Odeblad, E. 2003; ‘Morphological characterization of different human cervical mucus types using light and scanning electron microscopy; Human Reproduction; Vol. 18 No 9, 1782-1789, Sept 2003; available on the internet if you google Erik Odeblad).

4 Hume K, ‘The biology of the cervix 1998; (internet, google ‘Dr Kevin Hume, cervical mucus’)

5 Odeblad Erik; ‘Cervical mucus and their functions';Review article, J of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, Vol 26, No1, Jan 1997, p27-32

6 Odeblad, E; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ page 10, 11, 14, 15, 18 ; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. ( google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’.)

11i : What factors interfere with the interpretation of the mucus symptom?

1 Klaus H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 14, 13, ; Newman Lecture Series 1;May 21; 2000. (on the internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Odeblad E, ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method, www.woomb.org)

3 Odeblad E; ‘Aging of the cervix’ (www.woomb.org ).

4 Bates GW, Garza DE, Garza MA; ‘Clinical manifestations of Hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle'; Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, Vol 17, No 2. June 1990, p299-309

5 Soules MR; ‘ Adolescent Amenorrhea’ page 1089; Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology; Vol 34, No 4, August 1087; pages 1083-1102

6 Klaus H; ‘Natural Family Plannning: A Review'; 1995; from the Natural Family Planning Center of Washington D.C.

7 Mansfield MJ, Emans SJ; ‘Anorexia nervosa, athletics,and amenorrhea'; Ped. Clinics of North America; Vol 36,No 3, June 1989, 533-549

11j: The ‘Pill’, modes of action and its effects on the cervix

1 Hume Kevin MD; ‘The Biology of the cervix A summary of the advances from the work of Erik Odeblad’ Effects of contraceptive medication on the cervix’ ; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vo 25, No 2, Pages 17-24, 1998,. ( internet)

2 Klaus H; Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’see pages 14, 4; Newman Lecture Series 1;May 21; 2000. ( internet if you google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

3 Odeblad, E; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method’ p 32, 25 ; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No 3; 3-35; Sept 1994. ( internet; google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’.)

4 Odeblad E; “Some notes on the cervical crypts”; Bulletin of the ovulation method Research and reference centre of Australia, 27 Alexandra Parade, North Fitzroy, Victoria 3068, Australia; vol 24, No 2, page 31,1997.

5 Odeblad Erik; ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 29 No 1, March 2002; p2-11. (internet; www.woomb.org)

6 ‘Gynaecology’ by Ten Teachers'; Edited by Chamberlain G V P; 16th edition; 1995; ISBN 0 340 57315 5

7 MARTINDALE; The Extra Pharmacopoeia 21st edition, 1996; The Royal Pharmaceutical Society; page 1484 ISBN:0-85369-342-0

12a :What information can be obtained from the temperature graph ?

1 Marshall, John; Planning for a Family, an atlas of temperature charts 1965, pages 11,12; Faber and Faber Limited, London

12e : Does the BBT help the couple to plan a pregnancy?

1 World Health Organization: WHO Task force on methods for the determination of the fertile period; temporal relationship between ovulation and defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17b, LH, FSH, and progesterone. Special Programme of Research, Development and Training in Human Reproduction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980; 138:383-390

2 Klaus H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ page 4; Newman Lecture Series 1-May 21, 2000. ( internet if you google natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

3 Manassiev Nikolai, Whitehead, Malcolm; ‘Female Reproductive Health'; 2004, ISBN 1-85070-491-0

4 Griffin James E, Ojeda, Sergio R; Textbook of Endocrine Physiology';1996, p226-228; ISBN 0-19-510755-1(pbk)

13 :Cervix : palpation of the cervix

1 Keefe, E.; ‘Self-observation of the cervix to distinguish days of possible fertility'; Bull of the Sloane Hosp for Women; 1962; 129-136

2 Flynn A, Brooks M; ‘The Manual of Natural Family Planning'; page 77,1996; ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

14 :The Calendar Rule

1 Klaus H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ page 7; Newman Lecture Series 1-May 21, 2000. ( internet; google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Baird DD; ‘Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation – effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby'; N Engl J Med 1995; 333;1517-21

3 Flynn AM, Brooks M; The Manual of Natural Family Planning, 1996, ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

15: To achieve pregnancy

1 Flynn AM, Lynch SS; ‘Cervical mucus and identification of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle’ page 658; Br J of Obstet &Gynec; August 1976; vol 83; 656-659.

2 Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, Cavanagh D; Natural Family Planning – 1. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation’ Obstet & Gynec Nov 1978, vol 52, no 5 p 575-582.

3 Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Baird DD; ‘Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation'; N Engl J Med 1995, 333, no.23 p 1517-21.

4 Guida, M et al; “Efficacy of methods for determining ovulation in a natural family planning program; Fertil & Steril; vol 72, no 5, Nov 1999, p 900-904.

16 :How to avoid a pregnancy

1 Klaus, H ; Natural Family Planning : A Review 2nd Edition. July 1995, page 13; NFP Center of Washington, D.C. Inc. , 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810

17 : Menopause

1 Liu JH, Gass ML; ‘Management of the perimenopause'; 2006; Pub. McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-0-142281-1

2 Odeblad Erik; ‘The discovery of different types of cervical mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method'; Bulletin of the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Vol 21, No3; 3-35; Sept 1994. (on the internet if you google ‘Erik Odeblad, cervical mucus’).

3 Odeblad E, ‘Investigations on the physiological basis for fertility awareness’ page 7; Bulletin for the Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, vol 29, no 1, p2-11, march 2002, (internet, Billings Ovulation Method)

4 Flynn A, Brooks M; ‘The Manual of Natural Family Planning'; pages 74-80; 1996; ISBN 0 7225 3115 X

5 Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrot E et al; Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW). Fertil Steril. 2001; 76: 874

6 Flynn A, Worthington W; ‘Teachers Training Manual'; ‘symptothermal multiple index method’ of natural family planning.

7 Harlow S D, Mitchell ES, Crawford S; ‘The ReStage Collaboration: defining optimal bleeding criteriafor onset of early menopausal transition'; Fertil Steril; vol 89, No1, Jan 2008.

8 Alvero Ruben, Schlaff William D; ‘Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, The Requisites in Obstetrics and Gynecology'; 2007, page 229; ISBN-13:978-0-323-04054-9

9 McKinlay SM; ‘The normal menopause tradition: and overview ‘; Maturitas; 1996;23:137

10 Wallace R, Sherman BM et al; ‘Probability of menopause with increasing duration of amenorrhea in middle-aged women'; Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135: 1021, 1979.

11 Richardson SJ, Senikas V, Nelson JF; ‘Follicular depletion during the menopausal transition: evidence for accelerated loss and ultimate exhaustion'; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987; 65:1231   

12  Brown JB; ‘Types of ovarian activity in women and their significance: the continuum (a reinterpretation of early findings)';  Human Reproduction Update; 2011; Vol 17; No 2; p141-158. (this is a classic article which gives a greater understanding of the menstrual cycle throughout the reproductive life of the woman).  

13 Cynthia A. Stuenkel, MD, Margery Gass MD et al; ‘A decade after the Women’s Health Initiative – the experts agree'; Fertility and Sterility; vol98, no 2; August 2012.

 

18 After Childbirth (post partum)

1 Perez, A. Labbok, MH. Queenan JT. ‘Clinical study of the Lactational Amenorrhoea Method for family planning'; Lancet 1992; 339; 968-70B

2 Kennedy KI, Rivewra, R. McNeilly AS.; ‘Consensus Statement on the use of breastfeeding as a family planning method'; Contraception, 1989; 39 (5): 477-496

20 Stopping contraceptive medication

1 Klaus, H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?'; Newman Lecture Series ;1; May 21, 2000. ( internet; google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

2 Barnhart K, Schreiber C; ‘Return to fertility following discontinuation of oral contraceptives'; Fertil & Steril vol 91; No 3; March 2009. (This is a review article of the medical literature on this topic for the years 1960 to 2007).

21: Ovulation monitors/ Technology :

1 Freundl G, Godehardt E, Kern PA, et al; “Estimated maximum failure rates of cycle monitors using daily conception probabilities in the menstrual cycle”; Human Reproduction, (2003), vol 18, no. 12, p2628-2633.

2 Bonnar J, Flynn A, Freundl G et al; “Personal hormone monitoring for contraception”; Br J Fam Plann. 1999 Jan 24 (4): 128-134.

3 Cavero, C; “Using an ovarian monitor as an adjunct to natural family planning”; Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, vol 40, no 3, May’June 1995; p269-276.

4 Guida, M et al; “Efficacy of methods for determining ovulation in a natural family planning program; Fertil & Steril; vol 72, no 5, Nov 1999, p 900-904.

5 Blackwell LF, Brown JB, Vigil P et al; “Hormonal monitoring of ovarian activity using the ovarian monitor, Part 1. Validation of home and laboratory results obtained during ovulatory cycles by comparison with radioimmunoassay”; Steroids, 68, (2003), p 465-476.

6 Brown JB; ‘Ovarian activity and fertility and the Billings Ovulation Method, 2005; available on the internet if you google ‘Billings ovulation method’

7 Frank-Hermann P.et al; ‘The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study'; Human Reproduction; Feb 2007; page 9; p1-10. The study referred to is Freundl G et al (2003) cited as the first reference on this list.

22: Natural Family Planning : Advantages and Disadvantages

1 Klaus, H; ‘Natural family planning – Is it scientific? Is it effective?’ see page 14; Newman Lecture Series ;1; May 21, 2000. ( internet; google ‘natural family planning, Dr Hanna Klaus’).

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